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1. Bitcoin transactions are maintained using a blockchain. Explain how Bitcoin utilizes cryptographic digital signatures and SHA to maintain and link records in a blockchain. Your answer must include descriptive text and one demonstrating figure. Your figure must illustrate how SHA, digital signatures, and blockchains are utilized in Bitcoin.
2. Bitcoin does not require any central controlling or trusted agency. Describe how Bitcoin ensures that no one can alter a Bitcoin transaction in a blockchain, e.g., currency transfer.
3. Discuss why Bitcoin mining is critical to secure the Bitcoin currency and to validate all Bitcoin transactions. How might it be possible for one entity to dominate Bitcoin and its mining?
4. Describe how Tor utilizes AES, RSA, SHA, and TLS to anonymously transmit data through a sequence of network nodes (also called onion routers). Your answer must include descriptive text and one Your figure must illustrate how Tor's onion routing utilises AES, RSA, SHA, and TLS.
5. File transfer protocol (FTP) is the most widely used protocol for transferring data between a server and a client over transmission control protocol (TCP). A TCP connection is established between a user client and a server program. The server side of an FTP connection listens on TCP port 21 for incoming FTP requests. The user client of an FTP connection is initialized on a TCP port number above 1080.
Suppose you manage a server that has an IP address of 126.96.36.199 and runs both FTP and web services. Suppose you wish to build a packet-filtering firewall with a rule set to accept or deny inbound and outbound traffic
6. Use “Zenmap”, the GUI application for “Nmap”, to scan the target host “scanme.nmap.org”.
a) What is the operating system of the target host?
b) What is the IP address of the target host?
c) What ports and services are open on the target host? Provide a screenshot to support your answer.
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